We called it negotiation tactics, instead of what some might call it negotiation techniques! Useful to keep the negotiator offensive style in mind in integrative negotiation situation, unlike disruptive style (win win negotiation).
Whether you want to negotiate a price, a deal, buy and sell products or services, salary or bonus amount, these are the ultimate powerful sauce. These steps are for an aggressive efficient short term negotiation, suited best for what technically called, the integrative negotiation style. In case you don’t distinguish it yet, consider reading Distributive and integrative negotiation styles for short term and long term negotiation.
Now move on to these 10 negotiation tactics , expert negotiator uses and that are Science Backed for an integrative negotiation style.
1) Prepare the Context
Is it one shot or long-term process? A One-shot negotiation focuses generally on material and financial parameters. It requires mostly negotiation tactics backed with sales and communication skills, used heavily in short, one continuous time. To successfully achieve that, circumscribe all possible deal related parameters:
Market evolution, average price, offer and demand, competitors, salaries, value of product, ROI, guarantees ext…
Otherwise, every other deal is a long-term negotiation, with employment negotiations as a primary example. In this case, you need to deal not only over the agreement value, but manage the impression you’re making. Read ways to make an excellent impression right after your hiring.
2) Make the highest possible offer
“MORE EXTREME FIRST OFFERS LEAD TO HIGHER FINAL SETTLEMENTS”
Don’t fear to set a really aggressive offer that meets the limits of the negotiation context. Ideally the one that’s just outside of your partner’s reservation price, but not so far that they have sticker shock. Again, preparing the context is important.
Adam Galinsky, a Columbia University negotiation scholar, says that people are overly cautious when making first offers. There, where an expert negotiator carry and wary less.
In most of cases starting high is far efficient than trying to negotiate up. It persuades your partner of the high-value of what you’re offering and constrains him to act accordingly. Far better, by doing so, you activate a psychological trigger, called the anchoring technique which makes people deeply memorize your offer. It’s impressive as negotiation tactics and skilled expert negotiator knows how to do that!
3) Be the first to make the offer
Combining this to step 2, will lead to that: Start FIRST and with a STRONG position! Researchers are clear in this point:
“PEOPLE WHO MAKE FIRST OFFERS GET BETTER TERMS THAT ARE CLOSER TO THEIR TARGET PRICE”
Starting first, uses again the anchor psychological sales technique. It set the negotiation starting point. You have to be spunk and bold. When you do so, your offer will be the price baseline. You’re Buyer/Seller or hiring manager may adjust the figure, but slightly.
Oh! What if your front dealer makes the first offer? Wish may happen; probably because you’re not the only negotiator with brilliant skills in the world, right?). Don’t scare up, stay focus and here’s what to do: Say NO in an assertive behavior and make your offer instead.
Being assertive is key negotiation skill and means someone who behaves confidently and is not frightened to say what they want or believe (without being apparently aggressive to others).
The consequent prices you have to give then are the highest of your gap and manage to adjust that figure slightly, down?
4) Know the minimal amount that you’ll take.
Or what universities calls “reservation value”. So first, it serves in case the negotiation goes down, you know when to quit and avoid an offer that doesn’t worth it.
Secondly, it lets you be focus on a clear quantitative amount of the deal. Particularly, many times negotiation can goes emotional in order to gain impact on front partner or pressure goes high, so through the action you got a clear minimal exit price in mind.
Having a firm grasp of your reservation value is important from a psychological perspective to not get losses or let go under pressure and protect your intrests. Actually, in this agressive negotiation style, you have to focus on cutting the pie up, trying to get as much as you can for yourself.
5) Ask for an interval price.
New research indicates that people respond best when given a “bolstering range offer”. State the number that you’re looking for and a range above it. When you’re selling a car state the highest price and say that is slightly negotiable instead of fix offer. If you’re trying to get to a $100,000 salary, ask for $100,000 to $120,000.
Offering a range strikes people as more reasonable than to stand firm on a single number, so you’re less likely to get hit with an extreme counteroffer. Doing so, suddenly becomes way less polite than a non questionable offer for an integrative negotiation.
6) Show empathy and mirror the other person’s behavior.
When people are getting along, they mimic one another mirroring each other’s accents, speech patterns, facial expressions, and body language.
A Stanford-Northwestern-INSEAD study found that people who were coached to mimic their negotiation partners behavior not only negotiated a better deal, but expanded the pie for both people.
“Negotiators who mimicked the mannerisms of their opponents both secured better individual outcomes, and their dyads as a whole also performed better when mimicking occurred compared to when it did not” the authors wrote.
7) Emphasize your potential.
A Stanford-Harvard study recently suggests that accomplishments aren’t what capture people’s attention, rather; the potential of the person that they perceive.
“This uncertainty [perceived with the potential] appears to be more cognitively engaging than reflecting on what is already known to be true” Authors of the study wrote. You have to be spunk and bold, remember?
And yeah, slightly bragging! With enumerating things that make you different, best suited for the offer, advantages you bring, guarantees you give in order to emphasize your potential.
8) Tell them something about yourself.
In a 2002 experiment cited by Adam Grant, Northwestern and Stanford students were asked to negotiate over email. Some went straight to business, exchanging only names and email addresses.
Others went off-topic, “schmoozing” about hometowns and hobbies. The schmoozer’s reached an agreement 59% of the time, while the business-only made it 40% of the time. So it’s better to tell something about yourself that have a positive impact on negotiation. Use this emotional intelligence skills in every sale and negotiation situation, it’s too powerful.
9) Negotiate the whole offer, not flap by flap
If it’s a one shot integrative negotiation, keep all the aspects and parameters on the table in a manner that assure a benefic whole offer. Dilating these, on topics, may obscure to you the worthy of that proffer and in the other hand makes feel that you are too demanding on every issue, instead you have “to look” flexible (actually just look, you don’t have to be). Remember negotiation tactics is a push and pull game, unless you’re interlocutor is too passive or innocent that you can always stay offensive and get your price.
Furthermore, since it’s a one shot negotiation better do that on the whole price or business just to argue your offer once and let you anchor your adverse on a precise number of arguments. Second, this approach let you exercise a high focused negotiation pressure.
If it’s a long term negotiation then you should look for